The construction of the synagogue was approved by the Bavarian King Ludwig I in 1832. It was built in the same year and used until the end of the 19th century. Due to declining numbers in the Jewish community, regular services - at which at least ten male Jews must be present - could no longer be held from the 1890s onwards. Therefore, the synagogue was sold to a local carpenter's workshop in 1909 and used by them as a storage room. It is thanks to this circumstance that the building survived the National Socialist era unscathed. In the course of the 20th century, however, the need for repairs increased.
In 1988, the Förderkreis Ehemalige Synagoge Weisenheim am Berg was founded as a registered association and classified as a non-profit organisation. It bought the dilapidated building and renovated and restored it in 1989 and 1990 in consultation with the monument preservation authorities. For its many years of commitment, the Förderkreis was awarded the 2009 Citizens' Prize of the District of Bad Dürkheim; the prize was presented by District Administrator Sabine Röhl († 2012) on 13 January 2010.
During the restoration work, a hidden depot, a so-called geniza, was discovered in the attic. Spent Torah pennants, fragments of manuscripts and old prayer books were ritually stored in it. Some of the finds were put on display in a showcase.
Since the completion of the restoration, the listed building has been used for cultural purposes.
The former synagogue (Hauptstraße 28a) is located in the inner village in the second row. It is reached via a short cul-de-sac that branches off to the south from the main road. In front of the building to the south is a small square, which is part of the public street area.